1. Performance and characteristics of lithium iron phosphate battery
1）、 Ultra-long life: The cycle life of long-life lead-acid batteries is about 300 times, and the highest is 500 times. The lithium iron phosphate power battery has 2000 cycles of 1C charge and discharge at room temperature, and the capacity retention rate is more than 80%; it is lead Acid batteries are 5 times, 4 times that of Ni-MH batteries, 4 times that of lithium cobalt oxide batteries, and about 4-5 times that of lithium manganate batteries.
2.）、High safety: The binding force of the phosphate chemical bond is stronger than that of the traditional transition metal oxide structure chemical bond, so the structure is more stable and it is not easy to release oxygen. The stability of the lithium iron phosphate battery at high temperatures can reach more than 400, which ensures the high safety of the battery; it will not explode or burn due to overcharge, high temperature, short circuit, or impact.
3）、Environmental protection and no need for rare metals: Lithium iron phosphate batteries do not contain any (except lithium) heavy metals or rare metals, are non-toxic (SGS certified), non-polluting, comply with European RoHS regulations, and are environmentally friendly batteries.
4）、Fast charging speed, less self-discharge, no memory effect: Lithium iron phosphate battery can be charged and discharged quickly at high current 2C, under the special charger, the battery can be fully charged by 95% within 30 minutes at 2C, and the starting current can reach 2C , And lead-acid batteries do not have this performance now.
5）、Small size and light weight: The product design can be lightweight, the volume is 2/3 of the same capacity lead-acid battery, and also smaller than the nickel-hydrogen battery; the weight is 1/3 of the same capacity lead-acid battery, and the nickel-hydrogen battery About 2/3;
6）、 The battery cell voltage is high and the discharge platform is stable: 3.2V, less series connection, high battery pack reliability; high battery pack reliability, can be used for high current, high power charge and discharge, high rate discharge characteristics: 10C charge and discharge efficiency reaches 96 % Above, capacity retention rate above 90%, 10C discharge can be achieved.
2. Principles and characteristics of lithium iron phosphate batteries
The battery generally includes: positive electrode, negative electrode, electrolyte, separator, positive electrode lead, negative electrode lead, center terminal, insulating material, safety valve, sealing ring, pTC (positive temperature control terminal), battery case, etc. Among them, the difference in the positive electrode material, the negative electrode material, the electrolyte and the separator or the difference in the process have a decisive influence on the performance and price of the battery.
Lithium batteries are generally referred to as batteries with various lithium-containing materials as the cathode materials. The current cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries on the market are mainly lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4). Lithium-ion batteries using lithium nickelate (LiNiO2) and binary/ternary polymers as cathode materials. Lithium iron phosphate battery is a lithium ion battery that uses lithium iron phosphate (LiFepO4, LFp for short) as the positive electrode of the battery. Its internal structure is shown in Figure 1. On the left is LiFepO4 with an olivine structure as the positive electrode of the battery, which is composed of aluminum foil and the positive electrode of the battery. Connected, in the middle is a polymer separator, which separates the positive electrode from the negative electrode, but the lithium ion Li+ can pass through but the electron e- can’t pass. . Between the upper and lower ends of the battery is the electrolyte of the battery, and the battery is hermetically sealed by a metal shell, an aluminum-plastic composite film or a plastic shell.
The working principle of the LiFepO4 battery is: when the battery is charged, the lithium ions in the positive electrode material are released, pass through the electrolyte, pass through the diaphragm and enter the negative electrode material; when the battery is discharged, the lithium ions are released from the negative electrode and pass through the electrolyte. Go through the separator and return to the positive electrode material. (Note: Lithium-ion batteries are named because lithium ions move back and forth during charging and discharging, so lithium-ion batteries are also called "rocking chair batteries")
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